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A Study on Local Labor Market and Employment of Women (Young-Woo Koh, Hyo-mi Choi, Janghee Cho)
A Study on Local Labor Market and Employment of Women (Young-Woo Koh, Hyo-mi Choi, Janghee Cho)
  • Table of Contents


    Chapter 1. Introduction (Young-Woo Koh)

     

    Chapter 2. Analysis of Women’s Local Labor Market Area (Young-Woo Koh)

    Chapter 3. Relationship between Women and Children-friendly Local Community Conditions and Employment of Women (Hyo-mi Choi)

    Chapter 4. Study on Factors behind Young Women’s Choice of Where They Work: Focusing on Occupational Mobility in Metropolitan Area (Young-Woo Koh)

    Chapter 5. Analysis into Determinants of Female Employment Rate by Local Area: Empirical Analysis Using Spatial Panel Model (Young-Woo Koh)

    Chapter 6. Structure of Female Job Reallocation by Local Area (Janghee Cho)

    Chapter 7. Conclusion (Young-Woo Koh)

  • SUMMARY

    Generally, women have a strong tendency to experience spatial restrictions in their choice of job, which makes them more susceptible to the effect of local characteristics. In addition, female employment rate of a local economy is significantly impacted by characteristics of the labor market in their area of residence.

    With the above recognition, this study carries out a series of analyses into female employment at the level of local labor market.

    Chapter 2 analyzes spatial characteristics of female employment structure and summarizes commute information in different regional areas, which is used to examine the configuration and implications of women’s labor market areas in each city-county in each area. It was clearly shown that female employees have a relatively higher likelihood of commuting within the area. This backs up the conclusions from previous research that women have a relatively narrower labor market area since they are under greater spatial restraint compared to men in labor market participation. As women tend to form a relatively narrow labor market area, it can be concluded that each city-county has enough degree of self-sufficiency to form an independent labor market area for women.

    Chapter 3 uses difference-in-differences (DID) method to find that areas certified as female-friendly cities between the year 2010 and 2015 had a clear tendency of improved female employment probability. Based on this, it can be inferred that certification of female-friendly city has a positive effect on childcare and female employment. However, even areas certified as female-friendly cities were found to have a contradictory relationship between childcare and female employment, indicating that there must be expanded policy support to build a better childcare system to support double-income households and female employment, in addition to establishing a local environment that is friendly towards childcare.

    Chapter 4 shows the results of an analysis into metropolitan employment pattern of three cohorts (those born in the 1970s/1980s/1990s), who started their first job in around the 2000s. It can be inferred that the recent decline in population mobility into metropolitan area is attributable to the decline of people moving to metropolitan area for higher education, coupled with the rise in people getting a job in the area where they finished higher education. In other words, cohorts who are more recently born show a stronger relationship between the location of university and area of employment, which means that most of those who graduated from high schools in provinces outside of metropolitan area choose to get a job where they are, unless they went to a university in metropolitan area.

    Chapter 5 aims to identify factors that influence female employment rate at the local level. Spatial metric model that considers the effect of spatial interactions was used for empirical analysis and it showed statistically significant estimations for both spatial autoregressive coefficient and spatial autocorrelation coefficient, indicating that the effect of spatial interactions must be considered in analysis of female employment rate. Of the factors impacting local female employment rate, there was a statistically significant positive impact of birth rate and male employment rate while there was a statistically significant negative impact of the ratio of employees in service sector and the number of employees in male-dominant jobs.

    Chapter 6 explores the characteristics of job reallocation structure of women and men at the local level and found that women have a relatively higher job reallocation value. It was also found that the difference in net increase of women’s jobs between areas is mostly explained by areas with a higher number of jobs created for women. The difference between net increase in women’s and men’s jobs contributes about 11% to the net increase in total jobs. Overall, the net increase of men’s jobs is concentrated in manufacturing, public sector and construction, and producer service industry, while that of women’s jobs is concentrated in distribution service, social service, and producer service industry. The above results imply that support measures should prioritize jobs in service industry rather than manufacturing industry in order to promote the number and security of jobs for women. In particular, education and training should be provided in high value-added service industries where women can work with job security. Furthermore, since women have a higher level of job reallocation, there should be stronger policies to help them balance work and family by securing more jobs for those with a career break or working in temporary jobs.

     

Young-Woo Koh's other publications : 4
{Research Series} posts
No Title Author Date Attach
4 A Study on Local Labor Market and Employment of Women (Young-Woo Koh, Hyo-mi Choi, Janghee Cho) Young-Woo Koh, Hyo-mi Choi, Janghee Cho December 28, 2018 A Study on Local Labor Market and Employment of Women (Young-Woo Koh, Hyo-mi Choi, Janghee Cho)
3 Case Study of Local Employment Policy in Response to Demographic Changes and Local Extinction Risks Dongwoo Kang, Young-Woo Koh, Hyunji Kim, Sooyeon Nam, Eunha Jeon December 28, 2018 Case Study of Local Employment Policy in Response to Demographic Changes and Local Extinction Risks
2 Geographical Characteristics of Graduates’ Job Transition and Its Wage Impact Dongwoo Kang, Young-woo Koh, Chung Choe December 29, 2017 Geographical Characteristics of Graduates’ Job Transition and Its Wage Impact
1 Policy Challenges of Job Creation and Destruction by Region Young-Woo Koh December 30, 2016 Policy Challenges of Job Creation and Destruction by Region
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